Modeling and Enterprise Architecture

My intention in this blog, is not just repeat the ones in many guides from the internet, such as Zachman, FEAF, OBASHI, TOGAF, Gartner, IAF, among others. In this blog I intend to being much more visual, for people who are interested in the architecture of enterprise based on technological frameworks. However I will try to have an approach to physical models and try to come up with something a little different to what we see. But my strength is TOGAF, so I hope I excuse by focus on modeling for this frame of reference. It is important to also understand the context of enterprise architecture regardless of modeling and the frame of reference used and also some important key concepts.

Key Concepts

First thing here that I want to make reference is just the context of the enterprise architecture:

Strategic plan: It is the plan and guide is oriented where all business strategy, objectives and goals to be achieved within a period agreed with all the parties concerned.

Information technology strategic plan: It is where the strategy of technology of information aligned to the corporate strategic plan, will help run the business strategy guide and plan. In my opinion, the business (or institutional) strategy for government entities, is one. The strategic plan should have a part related to technology, to meet business goals.

Principles: They are business elements that govern their behavior in the market and also at home. They are not susceptible to constant changes throughout the lifecycle of the company.

Strategic objectives: are those points to which the company aims to achieve in a given period of time. There are qualitative and quantitative being the latter usually more relevant for a corporate or institutional strategy.

Enablers objectives: they are those points that a company should go in a given period of time to arrive and meet the objectives and strategic business goals.

Enterprise Architecture: It is the business tool that aims to run the entire business strategy and translate it to reach agreements between the interested stakeholders.

Reference models: this is what will be the working environment concerning which will execute the business strategy. Technology level the frameworks such as TOGAF, Zachman, IAF, etc., at the level of business, can be international standards that the company must meet to be able to fulfill its mission, such as ISO, IEEE, among others. Depends on the vertical industry which belong to the company, must comply with both external and internal regulations. Here also is the laws regulations that must comply with a company in a country.

Business process modeling: In terms more simple, these are processes that have the company to fulfill its mission. They could also include support processes and strategic processes. All this is shown easily on a map of processes.

Models of information / technology: are all these tools of technology that have or should have / acquire / build to support the achievement of the strategic goals.

Physical models: It is precisely the relevant business elements that allow or facilitate company to meet your business goals.

Section we have two additional elements:

Government: principles and rules governing the design, integration and operation of the governing bodies of the company, such as the three powers within a company: shareholders, Board and senior management. Better known as corporate governance.

Requirements: It is that list of the changes that are necessary to perform in the way how the institution company operates. These changes may include from work activities, policies and procedures to the installation of new equipment, software, hardware, business technology. The purpose of these changes is to help your organization achieve your goals more efficiently and the possible with the lowest possible cost.

Note, a thorough review of the requirements of the company can give as a result a surprising number of opportunities to bring the Organization to a new level of operational efficiency.


For Modeling

Enterprise architecture is one thing and another thing is the modeling, but how more efficient show the company what is at a given time and as it can be the company a future is modeling its main components relevant to the operation of the same. And more modeling have a language that is available to those stakeholders in the company.

Then let’s outline the conceptual framework for architecture modeling initially:

Business layer: here are offered products and services to external clients that are realized by business processes.

Layer of applications / information: here is supported in the business services and information technology applications; essentially software.

Layer technology: here the applications created using services of technological infrastructure such as processing, storage and communications networks primarily with software and hardware is supported.

Now come the aspects, which are active structures, behavior, passive structures.

Active structures: they represent the structural concepts of the activity of a company. The actors, the components of applications showing the behavior of an activity in particular.

Behavior: it is precisely the set of processes, functions, roles, services, business interfaces among others, which are executed by the actors and generate information entities.

Passive structures: It represents business objects on which the behavior is executed. For example, contracts, invoices, orders, etc.

But lately we have seen that the physical layer is also important and is mentioned in the 3.0 to the archimate modelling standard in this case. Let’s look at the following diagram:

This could be a dare for modeling such as archimate language. And would be more daring even if we alineáramos the cycle of ADM proposed TOGAF, which up to now being a framework made for I.T., in no time, as seen so far, a physical architecture of business. We’ll see that says TOGAF or posed in their upcoming releases.

Physical layer: This is where they develop, distribute products and services to the external clients. It is a facilitator for the daily operation of the business layer.

This layer physics also have structures, active, passive and behavior of structures. Here are examples for each of the layers and explain them briefly:

The job position is a passive structure and result of the service of profiling that makes the process of human talent; These are structures of behavior. To provide this service, it is necessary to use interfaces of business surveys which, together with the analyst of human talent, are the assets of this small example of establishment of model aspects. Let’s take a look at one that apply to information or applications layer:

Note, the class and the transactional log invoice, they are objects of passive structure generated by the application services “Transaction Control” and “Bill Creartion” respectively, which are elements of behavior; The elements which are the active structure here are the components of the application (s) accounts and billing respectively; i.e. those who made it possible to create the “Bill class”.  seen from business, the entity known as Bill.

Let’s an example for the technology layer:

Notice here how data files are a passive element in the structure and are accessed by elements of behavior such as essential services for a Datawarehouse such as access, analytical and data management. The datawarehouse has among other functions to data management, analytics and a function that allows me to enter stored data. The active components of the technological layer here are the node where is the datawarehouse, interfaces to customers that require the winery, and the communications components which are what make information go from one node to another.

Note that in all cases I used the notation of colors suitable for each case. This is for the guidance and the construction of models of architecture where not only involve single layer but other layers. Finally here is an example for physical business architecture:

Providers are associated with a supply chain and this in turn has material or inputs and are elements of the active structure of a physical architecture; The production plant has inter alia transformation tools that made the production process; These are the elements of behavior. Finally, we have the product that has been generated by the production process; but who creates the product are the equipment and machinery which are in silver production. The product generated, so far, is the passive element in the physical architecture in this example.

But, what does whatever possible to visualize and create these models? A control architecture is necessary created and certainly a motivation to execute the business strategy through enterprise architecture.


Motivation

As we have seen so far, the main concepts cover only the part of business, applications, and technology (would return to the theme, and the physical layer of business where it is? So far I have not seen anything not related to TOGAF and Archimate.

Let us not remain there, make a contribution. The Enterprise modeling, The enterprise architecture, governance and compliance are meaningless, but there is a business motivation. These motivations are expressed in the corporate strategic plan goals, quantitative and qualitative targets indirectly showing the capabilities that must be developed by a company.

Then the motivational elements, are those structures that are the reason for the “Why? ” it does enterprise architecture. Let’s look at a practical example and explain them:

Then, we have an interested, CEO, having these motivations for your company: meet the regulation of law, obtaining profits, have customer satisfaction and help desk support. This is motivating example and in one case 4 real life each motivator could develop completely separately with a group of stakeholders in particular.

For example, the motivator of the fulfillment of the law requires an external evaluation. the customer satisfaction, would require surveys of clients and clients that are removed from the company; For the latter is required a specific goal of reduction of customer dissatisfaction. On the other hand a motivator for the CEO is a support help desk. But for this you must have in mind the budget’s restriction of 500 K, that it must invest in the implementation of the table support and meet all the requirement of change that is everything that involves the Call Center. Then it must resort to proposed strategic plan to develop the ability to service to the customer.

Perfect. And now that we must do to ensure compliance with the goals and business requirements? A migration and implementation plan that unlike contained in the strategic plan, entering a particular bit more extensive because we must make clear to those interested in how reaching their. In other words, how to execute that strategy. This is the main objective of the enterprise architecture.


Migration and Implementation

In a company, stakeholders need to visualize how they will meet the business changes and the achievement of the goals through results of specific projects, channeled by a project office which has a previous portfolio and also with the priority required by the business. Also stakeholders need to see that products will be delivered to the company and the ways to achieve it.

Let’s look at the following example and I want to continue with the previous example, with an emphasis on migration and implementation:

Look to meet the requirement of having a call center, which is to change the whole business with a view to the company, including the elements of work packages to a portfolio of projects that will be in control of a project office; In this case this example office projects outsourced through collaboration and to deliver the call center project, is divided into 3 major phases which include elements that must be present in the proposed phases; In addition are considered for migration again the objective being to reduce the dissatisfaction of the customer in addition to any restrictions having migration which for this example has a budget of 500 k for the Call Center.


For Finishing

We have seen some small examples of as it could model certain parts of the company and we have seen it may be from the most simple to the most complex. The work is quite hard but once understood, is more easy to understand without a doubt a company, their motivations, their culture, is, among many other factors. But, where does enterprise architecture frameworks?

We have seen several times on the Open Group blogs follows:

http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/archimate3-doc/apdxd.html

Here we see that the layers of architecture in TOGAF and archimate, cover only so far, but where are the motivation and implementation of enterprise architecture? We then see him:

Yet failure to even see the correspondence between TOGAF and archimate containing physical layer does not manage it. I do not want to be so daring to place it I, but there is a gap in language modeling and the TOGAF framework for enterprise architecture. Here in Latin America has been adopted in many government institutions this framework, because it is simply the most commercial and where there is information online. It’s not bad, but organizations also change physically. and that also needs to be taken into account. This is almost certainly one of the points that feeds the opinions of critics of TOGAF and in favour of other frameworks.

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